Basics and Amino acids Classification Download ebook

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Amino acids can be classified into 4 types:

  1. Classification based on the position of “-NH2
  2. Classification based on the composition of “-R’ side chain
  3. Classification based on the Nutritional requirement
  4. Classification based on the Metabolic Fate

a) Classification based on the position of “-NH2”:

Amino acids can be classified into THREE types:

i) α-amino acid: The amino group attached to the next carbon of the carboxyl group is called “α-amino acid” All naturally occurring amino acids are in “α-L-amino acids”.

ii) β-amino acid: the amino group attached to the third carbon (numbering from Carboxyl group) of the amino acid is called “β-amino acid”. Eg: β-alanine, it is one of the end product of Pyrimidine catabolism.

iii) γ-amino acid: the amino group attached to the Fourth carbon (numbering from Carboxyl group) of the amino acid is called “γ-amino acid”. Eg: GABA (Gamma Amino Butyric Acid)

 

Basics and Amino acids Classification Download ebookBasics and Amino acids Classification Download ebookBasics and Amino acids Classification Download ebook

b) Classification based on the composition of “-R’ side chain:

Based on the composition of ‘R’ side chain, amino acids can be categorized into 8 types: (Fairley & Kigour, 1966)

a) Neutral Amino Acids (or) Simple amino acids:

These have no functional group in the side chain. Eg:

Name of the Amino acidSingle letter symbolThree letter symbolIUPAC nameSource
Glycine (glycosG=sweet)GGlyα-amino acetateAnimal source are Scleroproteins, Gelatin and silk fibroin.Plant source are Glycine Max (Soya been)
AlanineIsolated from Silk Fibroin in 1888.AAlaα-amino propionateAlanine is present in Silk fibroin alon with Glycine
ValineVValα-aminoisovalarate
LeucineIsolated from Cheese by Proust in 1819.LLeuα-aminoisocaproateIsolated from cheese, but later it was obtained in purer form fro hydrolysates of wool.
IsoleucineDiscovered by Paul Erhlish (LT 1854 to 1915)IIleα-amino-β-methylvalarate

neutral Amino acids

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

b) Hydroxyl Group containing amino acids:

These contain a hydroxyl group in their side chain. Eg:

Name of the Amino acidSingle letter symbolThree letter symbolIUPAC nameSource
SerineDerived from the SerumSSerα-amino-β-hydroxyl propionateSilk protein, Sericin, and Fibroin
ThreonineDiscovered by Meyer & Rose in 1936TThrα-amino-β-hydroxyl butyrateThreonine is less abundant than serine in most proteins.

Basics and Amino acids Classification Download ebook

c) Sulphar Containing amino acids:

These posses a sulfur atom in the side chain. Eg:

Name of the Amino acidSingle letter symbolThree letter symbolIUPAC nameSource
CysteineIsolated from Urinary stones in 1843CCysα-amino-β-mercaptopropionateFibrous proteina such as Keratin from hair are especially rich in cysteins (12%)
MethionineMMetα-amino-β-methylmercaptobutyrate

Basics and Amino acids Classification Download ebook

d) Acidic amino acids:

These have a Carboxyl group in the side chain

Name of the Amino acidSingle letter symbolThree letter symbolIUPAC nameSource
Aspartic acidDiscovered by Ritthausen in 1868.DAspα-aminosuccinateIt is the parent compound of aspargine.
Glutamic acidDiscovered by Ritthausen in 1866EGluα-aminoglutarateIt is found in Gluten. It is the parent compound of Glutamine.

Basics and Amino acids Classification Download ebook

e) Basic amino acids:

These possess an amino group in the side chain. Eg:

Name of the Amino acidSingle letter symbolThree letter symbolIUPAC nameSource
ArginineRArgα- amino-δ-guanidinovalarate(Guanidonium group is present)It is abundant in highly basic proteins of the cell nucleus (histones) and in Sperm proteins.
LysineKLysα, ε- diaminocaproateIt is present in plant proteins like Corn and Wheat.

Basics and Amino acids Classification Download ebook

f) Heterocyclic amino acid:

These amino acids have in their side chain a ring which possess at least one atom other than the carbon. Eg:

Name of the Amino acidSingle letter symbolThree letter symbolIUPAC nameSource
TryptophanIt was discovered in the laboratory of F.G.HopkinsWTrpα-amino-β—3-indolepropionate (or) β–indolylalanine
HistidineHHisα-amino-β-ImidazolepropionateHemoglobin, Protamines and Histones

amino acids - Tryptophan Amino acid- Histidine

g) Aromatic amino acid:

These have a benzene ring in the side chain. Eg:

Name of the Amino acidSingle letter symbolThree letter symbolIUPAC nameSource
PhenylalanineFPheα-amino-β-phenylpropionate
TyrosineIsolated from Cheese in 1857YTyrα-amino-β-(p-hydroxy phenyl) propionateCheese

Basics and Amino acids Classification Download ebook

h) Imino acid:

These are also heterocyclic compounds, which have “imino group” (-NH-) instead of amino group (-NH2).

Name of the Amino acidSingle letter symbolThree letter symbolIUPAC nameSource
ProlinePPhe2-pyrrolidinecarboxylateZein from Corn and Gelatin
Hydroxy ProlineHy.Pro

c) Classification based on the Nutritional requirement:

Based on Nutritional requirement, amino acids can be divided into 3 types.

  1. Essential Amino acids (EAA)
  2. Non-Essential Amino acids (NEAA)
  3. Semi Essential Amino acids (SEAA)

1. Essential Amino acids (EAA):

Some of the amino acids doesn’t synthesize in the human body. It should be supplied through diet. They are required for proper growth and maintenance of the individual.

Eg:

MATT VIL PHLy

      (or)

      PVT TIM HALL

M= Methionine A=Arginine T=Threonine T=Tryptophan V=Valine

I=Isoleucine L=Leucine P=Phenylalanine H=Histidine L=Lysine

2. Non-Essential Amino acids (NEAA):

The body can synthesize about 10 amino acids to meet the biological needs, hence they need not be consumed in the diet.

Eg: Gly, Ala, Ser, Cys, Asp, Asn, Glu, Gln, Tyr and Pro.

3. Semi-Essential Amino acid:

Histidine and Arginine are semi essential amino acids. Growing children require them in food. But they are not essential for the adult individual.

d) Classification based on the Metabolic Fates

Amino acids can be classified based on the metabolic fate:

i) Purely ketogenic amino acids

ii) Ketogenic and Glucogenic amino acids

iii) Purely Glucogenic amino acids

i) Purely ketogenic amino acids:

Leucine is purely ketogenic because it is converted into ketone bodies.

ii) Ketogenic and Glucogenic amino acids:

During metabolism, part of the carbon skeleton of these amino acids will enter the ketogenic pathway and the other part to glucogenic pathway.

Eg: Lys, Ile, Phe, Tyr & Trp are partially ketogenic and partially glucogenic.

iii) Purely Glucogenic amino acids:

All the remaining 14 amino acids are purely glucogenic as they enter only into the glucogenic pathway.

Other links of Amino acids:

  1. General Structure of Amino acids
  2. Classification of Amino acids
  3. Zwitter ions & Isoelectric points
  4. Titration curve of Glycine
  5. Peptide bonds
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