The study of Endocrine glands and their functions are called ‘Endocrinology’ the term introduced by PENDE. Vertebrates has been attained their systems in evolution. The systems are Respiratory system, Circulatory system, excretory system, Digestive system, Nervous system, Endocrine system and some other systems. In this there are two integrated systems functioning in Homeostasis in vertebrates including humans. These are Nervous system and Endocrine system. In this post we can discuss the details about Endocrine system, Endocrine secretions and their functions.
What is Endocrine Gland and What are Hormones?
(endonG=within; krineinG=to separate or distinguish). Endocrine glands are also called Ductless Glands. A ductless gland producing hormonal secretions that passes directly into the blood stream (or) Lymph. Bayliss and Starling (1902) defined an endocrine gland as ductless gland that synthesizes and then, upon appropriate stimulation, Release into the Blood Stream a chemical agent or Hormone. The Hormones or the chemical messenger is carried by blood throughout the body of the animal to target cells which possess specific receptor sites for hormones.
How many Glands are Present in Human?
The Principle Endocrine Glands in Human are
- Head Region (Two Glands) : Pineal and Pituitary Gland
- Neck Region (Three Glands) : Thymus , Thyroid and Parathyroid
- Abdominal Region (Four Glands) : Pancreas, Gastrointestinal mucosa, Adrenals and Gonads
How to Classify the Endocrine Gland secretions (Hormone)?
A) Based on their site on action, the hormones are of two types:
a) Local Hormones: It have specific local effects, where their nomenclature. E.g.: Acetylcholine, Secretin, Cholecystokinin, Serotonin, Histamine, Angiotensin, Bradykinin & Kallidin.
b) General Hormones: These are secreted by specific endocrine glands and are transported in the cause physiologic actions at points remote from their place of origin.
Some general hormones affect almost all cells of the body. E.g.: GH, Thyroid hormones
Some general hormones affect specific tissues far more than other tissues. E.g.: Adrenocorticotropin, Ovarian hormone
B) A classification of vertebrate hormones, based on their chemical composition:
Amino acid derivatives
Endocrine Glands, Secretions and their functions:
A) Pituitary Gland:
The pituitary gland is made of 3 lobes namely,
1. Anterior pituitary lobe (largest of all) [70%] –
Growth Hormone (GH)
Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)
Leutininzing Hormone (LH)
Follicular Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
Thyroid stimulating Hormone (TSH)
2. Middle lobe (5%) : Melanocyte stimulating Hormone (MSH)
3. Posterior pituitary lobe (25%):
Oxytocin (or) Ocytocin
T3 and T4 molecules (Thyroxine) are the thyroidal gland secretions.
C) Pancreatic Hormones:
Pancreas secrets Three hormones. They are
D) Adrenal Glands:
The gland has Two part. They are
Adrenal Cortex Region: Secrets Mineralocorticoids and Glucocorticoids
Adrenal Medullary Region : Secrets Epinephrine (or) Adrenalin and Nor-Epinephrine (or) Nor-Adrenalin
These are sex hormones, which are categorized into THREE groups:
- Androgens or male sex hormones which are C-19 steroids.
- Estrogens or female sex hormones which are C-18 steroids. Ring A of steroid nucleolus is phenolic in nature and is devoid of C-19 methyl group.
- Progesterone is a C-21 steroid produced during the luteal phase of menstrual cycle and also during pregnancy.
What are the mechanisms involved in Hormonal action?
Before going to read this read my old notes on Hormonal Action. Based on mechanism of action, the hormones may be classified into two types:
- Hormones with cell surface receptors (or) Peptide Hormonal Mechanism
- Hormones with Intra-cellular receptors (or) Steroidal Hormonal Mechanism