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Category Archives for "Intermediary Metabolism"

Glycogenesis: How to Synthesize Glycogen

“Synthesis of Glycogen from Glucose is called GLYCOGENESIS. It takes place in the Cytosol and requires ATP and UTP, besides Glucose.” The goal of glycolysis, glycogenolysis, and the citric acid cycle is to conserve energy as ATP from the catabolism of carbohydrates. If the cells have sufficient supplies of ATP, then these pathways and cycles […]

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  • Updated May 28, 2016

Chemiosmotic Theory by ATP Synthase Complex

ATP is synthesized by ATP Synthase, which is an enzyme complex made of a proton-conducting F­­0 unit and a catalyst F1 unit. The mitochondrial inner membrane contains the ATP synthesizing enzyme complex called ‘ATP synthase’(or) ‘F0 F1-ATPase’. (F for factor). F1 component is like a “door-knob” protruding into the matrix from the inner membrane. It […]

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  • Updated May 2, 2016

Inhibitors and UnCouplers of Oxidative Phosphorylation

Ability to harness energy from external sources and utilize it for biological work is characteristic of all living organisms. Phototrophs harvest the energy of light (Plants). Chemotrophs harvest energy from oxidation of fuel molecules.  The oxidation of foodstuffs occurs in three stages. Oxidative Stages of Food Stuff: 1. Primary Metabolism: In the first stage, DIGESTION […]

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  • Updated July 16, 2017

Oxidative Phosphorylation: Fate of Electrons in Mitochondria

The coupling of oxidation with phosphorylation is termed “Oxidative phosphorylation”, which takes place during the electron transport in the inner membrane. DEFINITION: What is the definition of Oxidative Phosphorylation. The Endergonic synthesis of ATP from ADP and pi in mitochondria is called “Oxidative phosporylation”, which is catalyzed by the enzyme “ATP synthase” (or) “mitochondrial ATPase […]

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  • Updated July 16, 2017

Electron Transport Chain Mechanism in Mitochondria

The electron carriers of the respiratory chain are organized into the membrane embedded supra molecular complexes that can be physically separated. Gentle treatment of the inner mitochondrial membrane with detergents allows the resolution of four unique electron – carrier complexes, each capable of catalyzing electron transfer through a portion of the chain. Complex I and […]

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  • Updated July 16, 2017

Fatty Acid Synthesis: Activation, Steps and Control

Fatty acid synthesis occurs similarly to Beta-oxidation – acetyl groups are added to a growing chain, but the mechanism of the pathway is distinctly different from being simply the reverse of Beta-oxidation. Fatty acid synthesis occurs in the cytosol (not mitochondria). It uses a moiety called Acyl-carrier protein (ACP) instead of CoA and the reducing […]

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  • Updated May 28, 2016